Umblachery cattle is native of Thanjavur, Thiruvarur and Nagapattinam districts of Tamil Nadu, India. This breed gets its name from the place of its origin – the Umblachery village in Nagapattinam district of Tamilnadu. It is variedly known as Jathi madu/ Mottai madu/ Molai madu/ Therkathi madu.
Umblachery is a draught breed of the zebu type, similar to Kangayam but smaller, and used for agricultural work. The males generally find use in ploughing, carting, thrashing and paddling. This breed is capable of doing continuous work for six to seven hours under the hot sun and is suitable for ploughing in marshy paddy fields because of its medium size.
The practice of dehorning of bullocks is peculiar in the Umblachery cattle. Dehorning of male calves is at about 10-12 months of age. During dehorning, there is a practive of pruning of ears. Umblachery breeds by natural mating.
As per the 1998 estimate, a total of 2.83 lakhs of Umblachery cattle were available in the breeding tract. However, the breeding tract has shrunken over the years. Introduction of crossbreeding and lack of concerted efforts for improvement and conservation have deteriorated the status of this breed. There has been a decline in Umblachery cattle population and also a dilution of the germplasm.
The Government of Tamilnadu had established a farm in 1954 at Orathanadu (near Thanjavur) to develop this breed. A new farm was later started in Korukkai, near Umblachery village, especially to conserve Umblachery breed in its home region. Though the Government of Tamil Nadu has launched various initiatives in the Animal Husbandary Department, further efforts to conserve this rare breed is much required.